Style Guide

Left History generally adheres to the conventions of the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. Before submitting, please ensure that your manuscript follows the CMS as well as Left History‘s specifications below.

You can find the latest at the Chicago Manual of Style Online.

Left History’s Style Guidelines

When preparing manuscripts for submission please pay attention to the following:

1. Submissions should range from 20 to 35 pages, double-spaced. If you wish to submit a longer piece, please contact the editors at

2. Use Chicago style for citations. Do not use p. or pp. for page numbers, just the numbers. Abbreviate citations that are used more than once. Include the city of publication, the publishing company, and the year of publication. In the notes, there should be a space between the number and the citation (Incorrect: 1Morrow and Spelman, 126. Correct: 1 Morrow and Spelman, 126.).

3. Endnotes are used for references, and it is best if these are automatically generated by your word-processing program. Do not format the endnotes by using special fonts, numbering, indents, or style sheets. Place the number for the endnote after the end of a sentence (.23).

4. When citing archival material, please adhere to the following template as closely as possible, depending on the available information: [record author/description/title], [date], [catalogue identifier], [collection name], [name and location of archive] (Letter from A to B, January 1, 1945, Box 1, Folder 2: Letters, Mrs. A Collection/Fonds, Clara Thomas Archives and Special Collections, York University, Toronto, Canada).

5. Numbers from one to twenty should be spelled out (There were sixteen people at the demonstration). Numbers above twenty should be rendered numerically (There were 65 people at the demonstration). When a combination of these numbers appears in a sentence, the numbers should be spelled out unless one of the numbers contains three or more digits (There were sixty-four people at the demonstration, twelve of whom were arrested. Out of 368 people at the demonstration, sixty-four were arrested and nine assaulted). Centuries should be spelled out (nineteenth century, not 19th century). Numbers larger than three digits should contain a comma (23,000, not 23 000).

6. Double-check spelling in quotations and proper names, and verify dates. We prefer Canadian spellings (organization and organize, not organisation or organise; labour, not labor; centre, not center). Proper names and titles should use the same spelling as the original (Palladium of Labor, not Palladium of Labour). Original text with spelling or grammar errors should be transcribed exactly, with [sic] employed where necessary.

7. Use italics for titles of books, journals, etc., non-English words, and author’s emphasis.

8. Use a single space after periods, colons, etc. Use em dashes with no spaces on either side to indicate a break or aside within a sentence. Use en dashes to signify “to” (1993–2000, the London–Paris train). Use hyphens to join compound words or modifiers (mass-produced, dog-eat-dog). Use three period ellipses with a space on each side to indicate an omission within a quote ( … ). Lists of three or more nouns should have a comma after each (workers, farmers, and labourers).

9. Use double quotation marks to signify a quotation (single quotation marks for a quote within a quote). Only keep punctuation in quotations that was in the original. Punctuation ending a quotation should be on the left side of the quotation mark (.” or ,”).

10. Block quotations should be used for quotations that run four lines or longer. The entire block quotation should be indented from the left and the right. Do not use quotation marks to signify block quotations.

11. Dates should follow a month-day-year format (August 13, 1967; March 1992; on June 1). Do not use ordinals (1st, 2nd).

12. New paragraphs should be indented; do not leave extra space between paragraphs. Submissions should be 12-point font, double-spaced. In preparation for the anonymous peer review process, please remove all identifying information from your manuscript.

13. Spell out acronyms the first time they are used. Do not use periods within acronyms (USA, not U.S.A; MA thesis, not M.A. thesis).

To download a .docx version of this guide, click here.